Originally published in 1893. PREFACE: This work is designed for the course in lower mathematics of schools and colleges. It presupposes an elementary knowledge of Geometry and Trigonometry, and for the sake of brevity, repetition of definitions and demonstrations given in these branches have been omitted; where a principle is used that has been established in either of these branches, the student is referred to one of them for proof. This early works is a comprehensive and informative look at the subject with much of the information still useful and practical today. Many of the earliest books, particularly those dating back to the 1900's and before, are now extremely scarce and increasingly expensive. We are republishing these classic works in affordable, high quality, modern editions, using the original text and artwork.